About Penn and Associates, Inc.

Brief overview of services
Penn and Associates provide full-service marketing research. We offer verifiable mixed-mode (online, postcard-to-website invitations, email invitations with embedded survey link, and on-site intercepts) data collection and probability-based sampling methodology. Our research provides our clients with statistically significant sample and data results where recommendations can be quantifiably projected onto the general population for all respondent demographic groups (percentages the same or close to census data), even for populations that are difficult to reach and often under-represented.

Our pledge
We are committed to providing relevant and reliable marketing research information to all kinds of organizations. When so much depends on the truthfulness of honest, accurate, marketing research, rely on the full-service resources of Penn and Associates, Inc. to benefit you and your organization.

Our objectives
We conduct marketing research that is free from bias and is designed to better link our clients with their customers.

Areas of expertise
  • Data collection: Mail, online, telephone, observation, one-on-one in-depth interviews, focus groups, and secondary source research services are all available. The methodology that we recommend is always custom designed, developed, and controlled to ensure a statistically significant random sample is achieved for our clients.
  • Evaluations: Many organizations have a wealth of data, but little or no interpretation of what their information really means. Penn and Associates provide analysis and trending for such data. We recommend methods, criteria, and systems for ongoing information extraction.

Web survey considerations
  • Responsive Design means that respondents can access questionnaires from any device (desktop, laptop, tablet, and smartphone) and complete surveys in their own time and at their own convenience. With careful, effective language and logo/name recognition, we receive statistically significant response rates for our clients.
  • Penn and Associates observe that web-based data collection achieves a higher percentage of larger organizations than was the case using traditional methods.
  • Evolving technologies provide new and exciting platforms for mixed-mode marketing research data collection where each mode matches the communication preferences of the target population. Penn and Associates analysts expect to write reports from statistically significant controlled sample so that they can project the findings onto the total population and make actionable recommendations.

Study Design
This begins with problem definition and secondary research. Penn and Associates design questionnaires to extract from respondents the precise informational needs of our clients. Clear understandable survey questions encourage and motivate respondents to complete interviews.

Penn and Associates provide both qualitative and quantitative marketing research.
  • Penn and Associates' focus group moderators are ethical and trained to extract insights and details from participants. We consider that focus groups conducted after quantitative research provide detailed clarification of any issues that may be raised by a significant number of respondents.
  • Quantitative research requires large samples. It is more conclusive than qualitative research and can be used in decision making. If done with integrity, these data will combine well with secondary sources and published research reports. Quantitative research results can be projected onto populations with a specific degree of confidence (depending on both the sample size and the percentage of respondents responding the same way to a question) such that the results would be the same if the entire population had been interviewed.

Sample Size
Penn and Associates provide appropriate confidence levels and confidence intervals for all sample sizes. A convenient level of confidence is 95% with +/-5 confidence interval; this is an industry standard. Up to a certain point, the larger the sample, the higher the confidence level and/or the lower the confidence interval. A decision about sample size is typically based on factors such as time, budget, and necessary degree of precision.

Penn and Associates can weight single variables or multiple variables to make answers count the same, even though a variable is over or under represented in the sample. Weighting can also be used to alter numbers on rating scales; for example, converting a single-digit rating scale to a 100-point scale.

Quality Control
Survey data is checked to identify incomplete, inconsistent, or ambiguous responses. We conduct extensive statistical testing, such as correlation and comparing "each response to all," to ensure a random sample has been achieved. Achieving a true random sample is an essential part of the initial research design plan that is developed prior to any data collection.

Data Analysis
A frequency distribution produces tables of counts, percentages, and cumulative percentages for all the values associated with the variables. The mean, mode, and median of a frequency distribution are measures of central tendency (central limit theorem). The normal distribution is assumed in describing the variability of the distribution. These measures include the range, variance, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, and inter-quartile range. Other statistical tests utilized by Penn and Associates include analysis of variance (ANOVA), regression, correlation, factor, and cluster analyses.

Reporting and presentation
Penn and Associates provide detailed reporting and full interpretation of research findings. Reports include the following deliverables:
  • Executive summary
  • Full report with tables, graphs, quotations and insights from answers to verbatim questions
  • Recommendations
  • Projections for implementing the recommendations
  • High-level Power Point presentation and discussion of research