About Penn and Associates, Inc.
Brief overview of services
Penn and Associates provide full-service marketing research. We offer
verifiable mixed-mode (online, postcard-to-website invitations, email
invitations with embedded survey link, and on-site intercepts) data
collection and probability-based sampling methodology. Our research
provides our clients with statistically significant sample and data
results where recommendations can be quantifiably projected onto the
general population for all respondent demographic groups
(percentages the same or close to census data), even for populations
that are difficult to reach and often under-represented.
We are committed to providing relevant, accurate, and reliable
marketing research information to all kinds of organizations. When so
much depends on the truthfulness of honest, accurate, marketing
research, rely on the full-service resources of Penn and Associates,
Inc. to benefit you and your organization.
We conduct marketing research that is free from bias and is designed
to better link our clients with their customers.
Areas of expertise
Data collection: Mail, online, telephone, observation, one-on-one
in-depth interviews, focus groups, and secondary source research
services are all available. The methodology that we recommend is
always custom designed, developed, and controlled to ensure a
statistically significant random sample is achieved for our clients.
Evaluations: Many organizations have a wealth of data, but little
or no interpretation of what their information really means. Penn
and Associates provide analysis and trending for such data. We
recommend methods, criteria, and systems for ongoing information
Web survey considerations
Responsive Design means that respondents can access
questionnaires from any device (PC, laptop, tablet, and
smartphone) and complete surveys in their own time and at their
own convenience. With careful, effective language and logo/name
recognition, we receive statistically significant response rates for
Penn and Associates observe that web-based data collection
achieves a higher percentage of larger organizations than was the
case using traditional methods.
Evolving technologies provide new and exciting platforms for
mixed-mode marketing research data collection where each mode
matches the communication preferences of the target population.
Penn and Associates analysts expect to write reports from
statistically significant controlled sample so that they can project
the findings onto the total population and make actionable
Penn and Associates provide detailed reporting. Our custom-built
online survey sites are secure, exhaustively tested, and designed for
ease-of-use by respondents. We strictly observe the confidentiality and
rights of consumers and organizations providing information. Reports
include quotations and insights from answers to verbatim questions,
infographics, executive summary, methodology, recommendations,
presentation slides, and onsite presentations.
This begins with problem definition and secondary research. Penn and
Associates design questionnaires to extract from respondents the
precise informational needs of our clients. Clear understandable survey
questions encourage and motivate respondents to complete interviews.
Penn and Associates provide both qualitative and quantitative
Penn and Associates' focus group moderators are ethical and
trained to extract insights and details from participants. We
consider that focus groups conducted after quantitative research
provide detailed clarification of any issues that may be raised by a
significant number of respondents.
Quantitative research requires large samples. It is more
conclusive than qualitative research and can be used in decision
making. If done with integrity, these data will combine well with
secondary sources and published research reports. Quantitative
research results can be projected onto populations with a specific
degree of confidence (depending on both the sample size and the
percentage of respondents responding the same way to a question)
that the results would be the same if the entire population had been
Penn and Associates provide appropriate confidence levels and
confidence intervals for all sample sizes. A convenient level of
confidence is 95% with +/-5 confidence interval; this is an industry
standard. Up to a certain point, the larger the sample, the higher the
confidence level and/or the lower the confidence interval. A decision
about sample size is typically based on factors such as time, budget,
and necessary degree of precision.
Penn and Associates can weight single variables or multiple variables
to make answers count the same, even though a variable is over or
under represented in the sample. Weighting can also be used to alter
numbers on rating scales; for example, converting a single-digit rating
scale to a 100-point scale.
Survey data is checked to identify incomplete, inconsistent, or
ambiguous responses. We conduct extensive statistical testing, such as
correlation and comparing "each response to all," to ensure a random
sample has been achieved. Achieving a true random sample is an
essential part of the initial research design plan that is developed prior
to any data collection.
A frequency distribution produces tables of counts, percentages, and
cumulative percentages for all the values associated with the variables.
The mean, mode, and median of a frequency distribution are measures
of central tendency (central limit theorem). The normal distribution is
assumed in describing the variability of the distribution. These
measures include the range, variance, standard deviation, coefficient
of variation, and inter-quartile range. Other statistical tests utilized by
Penn and Associates include analysis of variance (ANOVA), regression,
correlation, factor, and cluster analyses.
Deliverables, articles, and presentation
Experts at Penn and Associates write reports and articles
interpreting research data. Reports typically include an executive
summary followed by a full and detailed report with tables and graphs.
Reports conclude with recommendations. Slide presentation of the
information is also available. Reports are accompanied by full-sets of
data tables. Articles written for publication by Penn and Associates are
printed in national journals and trade press.